The church and the convent were erected in the years 1636-1658 for the order of Bernadine Sisters, who came to Lublin in the beginning of the 17th c. Both buildings were founded by Piotr Czerny of Witowice. In the first half of the 18th c. a tower was constructed next to the church. The present look of the church is a result of reconstruction works undertaken after the fire in 1768. After the dissolution of the Bernardine Order in 1864, the buildings were given to diocesan priests. They were returned to the order in 1918, but the Sisters handed them over to the Jesuits in 1920.

The interior walls of the church are decorated with illusionistic neo-Baroque polychromes painted by the Lublin artist Władysław Barwicki (1897). At the main altar hangs the painting of St. Peter in Doubt by Antoni Michalak.The entrance to the church is from the side of Królewska Street, near the monument to priest Jerzy Popiełuszko.