The Church of the Holy Spirit is one of the oldest churches in Lublin. It was built in the years 1419-1421 from the foundation of Lublin burghers. The church adjoined the then existing hospital for the poor, the disabled, and terminally ill. The building currently adjacent to the church from the western side, reconstructed in the XIX century, used to be a part of the hospital.

The church of the Holy Spirit was rebuilt in the Lublin Renaissance style in the years 1602–1608 according to a design by Jan Cangerle. A chancel with a semicircular apse was added to this single nave building. The church has two chapels – one founded by the Lublin councillor Stanisław Licheński in the first half of the XVII century, and the other founded by Stefan Czarniecki in the second part of the XVII century. The chancel and the chapels are decorated with stucco ornaments. Numerous epitaphs can be found in the church-porch.

The painting of the Virgin Mary with the Child at the main altar is considered miraculous. On July 13, 1642, Jakub Lenczowski, a student of the Jesuit school, noticed tears streaming down the face of the Mother of God. The cult of the image of the Virgin Mary with the Child continues to this day.

An interesting piece of trivia is that on January 14, 1875, in the church of Holy Spirit, Aleksander Głowacki (Polish writer known under the pen name of Bolesław Prus) married Oktawia Trembińska (a distant cousin on his mother's side).